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Since testing is an important but expensive process in the protocol development, formal specification models like FiniteState Machines (FSMs) are used to automate testing process. This paper focuses on specifications in a system of communicating FSMs (SCFSM) for protocols with multiple components, and explores fault diagnosis of protocol implementations based on such specifications. The target implementation is first examined with test cases generated by our test generation method. For the implementation which turns out to have a fault, we propose a heuristic algorithm to isolate and locate the fault in the specification. We also presents the assumptions and conditions required for exact fault localization of an SCFSM. Additionally, an adaptive method is proposed to minimize the fault candidates with the given test cases. The proposed method is evaluated with case studies and complexity analysis, and also software tool development in Java.

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