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This work presents a detailed study of 125 mm tank gun smooth bore barrel behavior during sand ingress while firing with High Explosive Fragmentation (HEF) projectile. The field and metallurgical investigation of failed muzzle end barrels confirms that the presence of sintered sand deposit at the defective location. Hence, finite element analysis using ANSYS–Autodyn software is done to understand the barrel failure during sand ingress. In this analysis, the barrel and projectile are modeled using 3D brick elements and the sand particles are modeled using SPH approach. The present work involves a series of simulation for studying the effect of different sand heights and SPH particle sizes on the barrel. The 3D numerical simulation clearly demonstrates that the sand obstruction beyond threshold quantity leads to high-velocity impact between the sand and barrel which causes barrel bore radial deformation and results in material failure. Further, finite element analysis shows that the size of the sand particle and velocity of the projectile also plays a significant role in the barrel damage.

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