Two atoms located in a one dimensional waveguide with initially one of them in the excited state interact by exchanging photons. We analyze the exchange process distinguishing between real and virtual photons contributions, and comparing between the Coulomb and Goeppert-Mayer gauges. We show that gauge-independent coupling terms can be interpreted in a simple way using the time-energy incertitude relation
Derouault, S. and A. Bouchene, M.
"Exchange of Photons between Two Atoms in a 1D Waveguide. Gauge Dependent and Independent Couplings,"
Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences: Vol. 09
, Article 27.
Available at: https://dc.naturalspublishing.com/amis/vol09/iss5/27