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Diffraction loss and the shadow of diffraction, which account for the growth of trees based on wireless sensors, longdistance, real-time, and accurate automatic acquisition of environmental information, were presented to meet the requirements for a wireless sensor network in a forest. Considering electromagnetic wave propagation, which accounts for the scattering and absorption behavior of plantations, a physical model of diffraction for a forest is constructed using the attenuation and the absorbing screens. The mathematical model of diffraction is presented using the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction. Moreover, the expression for diffraction loss is derived. The results were then applied to the birch. Simulation and analysis show the validity of the proposed model. The algorithm for diffraction loss can serve as a theoretical foundation for the optimization of the sensor layout and introduces a novel technology for the telemetry measurement of environmental information.

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